Abandoned CallAn abandoned call is when the caller hangs up before reaching an agent. Also called a “Lost Call”.
Activity CodesSee Wrap-Up Codes.
- How much time they were available to take calls during their shifts, including the time spent handling calls and the time spent waiting for calls to arrive (also called Availability)
- When they were available to take calls (also called Compliance or Adherence). See Real-Time Adherence Software and Occupancy.
Awaiting Further InstructionAFI stands for Awaiting Further Instruction and is typically a wrap up code waiting for a customer to respond with further information.
AgentThe person who receives and makes customer telephone calls. May also deal with customer correspondence and customer emails. Agents are also commonly known as customer advisors or customer representatives.
Agent GroupAlso called Split, Gate, Queue or Skills Group. A collection of agents that share a common set of skills, such as being able to handle customer complaints.
Agent OccupancyOccupancy is the period of logged-in time agents spend on call-related activity.
Agent Out CallAn outbound call placed by an agent.
Agent StatusThe agent’s status at a particular point in time – e.g. wait, talk, wrap, idle, unavailable.
All Trunks Busy (ATB)When all trunks are busy in a specified trunk group. Generally, reports indicate how many times all trunks were busy, and how much total time all trunks were busy. What they don’t reveal is how many callers got busy signals when all trunks were busy.
AnalogueTelephone transmission or switching that is not digital. Signals are analogous to the original signal.
AnnouncementA recorded verbal message played to callers.
Answer SupervisionThe signal sent by the ACD or other device to the local or long-distance carrier to accept a call. That is when billing for either the caller or the call centre will begin if long-distance charges apply.
Answered CallWhen referring to an agent group, a call counted as answered when it reaches an agent.
Application-Based Routing and ReportingThe ACD capability to route and track transactions by type of call or application (e.g. sales, service), versus the traditional method of routing and tracking by trunk group and agent group.
ArchitectureThe basic design of a system. Determines how the components work together, system capacity, upgradability, and the ability to integrate with other systems.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)Otherwise known as “machine intelligence”, AI refers to machines simulating or bettering human intelligence. Attrition is the rate at which members of staff voluntarily leave the workforce over a given period of time. It is also known as ‘staff turnover’, or ‘staff churn’, although in the contact centre industry ‘churn’ tends to refer to the flow of customers rather than staff.
Auto AvailableAn ACD feature whereby the ACD is programmed to automatically put agents into Available mode after they finish Talk Time and disconnect a call. If they need to go into After-Call Work, they have to manually put themselves there.
Auto GreetingAgent’s pre-recorded greeting that plays automatically when a call arrives.
Auto Wrap-upAn ACD feature whereby the ACD is programmed to automatically put agents into After-Call Work after they finish Talk Time and disconnect calls. When they have completed any After-Call Work required, they put themselves back into Available.
Automatic Number Identification (ANI)A feature of the telephony network to capture a caller’s identifying telephony number. Known in the UK as Calling Line Identity (CLI).
AvailabilitySee Adherence to Schedule.
Available StateWhen an agents is signed on to the ACD and waiting for calls to arrive.
Average DelaySee Average Speed of Answer.
Average Delay of Delayed CallsThe average delay of calls that are delayed. It is the total Delay for all calls divided by the number of calls that had to wait in queue. See Average Speed of Answer. AHT is the amount of time it takes an agent to deal with all aspects of a call – it includes talk time plus After-Call Work (ACW).
Average Holding Time on TrunksThe average time inbound transactions occupy the trunks. It is: (Talk Time + Delay Time)/Calls Received AHT is also an acronym for Average Handling Time, which has a different meaning.
Average Number of AgentsThe average number of agents logged into a group for a specified time period. Average Time to Abandon (ATA) is also known as the Average Patience of the caller. This is the average length of time that a caller will stay in a queue before they abandon (or hang up the call). While a significant number of people will stay on the line for very long periods of time, others will simply hang up. Some will redial, but many will not.
Average Time to AbandonmentThe average time that callers wait in queue before abandoning. The calculation considers only the calls that abandon.
Awaiting Further Instructions (AFI)This is the status of a customer query in a support centre where things cannot proceed until further instruction is given. For example, a query can be AFI when the customer is yet to give the call centre agent the go ahead on a potential action.
Back-Office Optimisation (BOO)Being able to shift resources from the contact centre to the back office during the low-contact-volume parts of the day, and shifting resources from the back office to the contact centre during contact volume peaks, makes sense and should provide an increased efficiency.
Base StaffAlso called Seated Agents. The minimum number of agents required to achieve service level and response time objectives for a given period of time. Seated agent calculations assume that agents will be in their seats for the entire period. Therefore, schedules need to add in extra people to accommodate breaks, absenteeism and other factors that will keep agents from the phones. See Rostered Staff Factor.
Basic Rate Interface (BRI)One of two basic levels of ISDN service. A BRI line provides two bearer channels for voice and data and one channel for signalling (commonly expressed as 2B+D). See Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Integrated Services Digital Network.
Beep ToneAn audible notification that a call has arrived (also called “Zip Tone”). Beep tone can also refer to the audible notification that a call is being monitored.
BenchmarkHistorically, the term referred to a standardised task to test the capabilities of devices against each other. In quality terms, benchmarking is comparing products, services and processes with those of other organisations, to identify new ideas and improvement opportunities.
Best in ClassA benchmarking term to identify organisations that outperform all others in a specified category.
Blended AIThis refers to the combination of both human intelligence and Artificial Intelligence to help better the customer experience.
BlockageCallers blocked from entering a queue.
Blocked CallA call that cannot be connected immediately because A) no circuit is available at the time the call arrives, or B) the ACD is programmed to block calls from entering the queue when the queue backs up beyond a defined threshold. BAU means the normal state of operations for the contact centre. It is the opposite of AHOD, which stands for All Hands on Deck.
Busy HourA telephone traffic engineering term, referring to the hour in which a trunk group carries the most traffic during the day. The average busy hour reflects the average over a number of days such as two weeks. Busy Hour has little use for incoming call centres, which require more specific resource calculation methodologies.
Call AvoidanceA proactive strategy to reduce the number of unwanted or low-value calls – for example, failure avoidance by eliminating repeat calls; or call automation through self-service.
Call BlendingCall Blending is a technique to mix inbound and outbound calls for specific agents. Smooths out the peak demand for inbound call patterns by feeding outbound calls of a similar call type to agents during quiet periods.
Call CalibrationContact centres often run call calibration sessions with their quality analysts and team leaders to ensure that everyone is assessing customer contacts in the same way. By doing so, the contact centre can help to ensure advisors that their performance is being scored fairly, while changing any subjective criteria from the quality scorecard.
Call Centre ManagerThe call centre manager is the person responsible for the management of the budget, operation and business performance of the call centre.
Call Control VariablesThe set of criteria the ACD uses to process calls. Examples include routing criteria, overflow parameters, recorded announcements and timing thresholds.
Call Detail RecordingData on each call, captured and stored by the ACD. Can include trunk used, time in queue, call duration, agent who handled the call, number dialled (for outgoing), and other information.
Call Disposition codesCall disposition codes (also known as wrap-up codes) are used by contact centres to label and classify calls as they come in, based on the reason why the customer is calling.
Call DriversA call driver is the reason that someone had called into the contact centre. Contact centres often measure and analyse their most common call drivers, in order to lower call volumes.
Call ForcingAn ACD feature that automatically delivers calls to agents who are available and ready to take calls. They hear a notification that the call has arrived (e.g. a beep tone), but do not have to press a button to answer the call.
Call Handling AnalysisCall handling analysis is an approach to monitor the effectiveness and quality of the handling of calls by the agents.
Call RecordingA solution to implement an effective call handling quality process. Can involve the recording and storage of calls and data relating to financial or legal transactions. See the Call Recording and Speech Analytics Reference Guide
Caller IDSee Automatic Number Identification.
Calls In QueueA real-time report that refers to the number of calls received by the ACD system but not yet connected to an agent.
Central Office (CO)Can refer to either a telephone company switching centre or the type of telephone switch used in a telephone company switching centre. The local central office receives calls from within the local area and either routes them locally or passes them to an inter-exchange carrier (IXC). On the receiving end, the local central office receives calls that originated in other areas from the IXC.
Channel AgnosticProvision of a (centralised) process or interaction route, irrespective of the interaction channel.
Chief Information Officer (CIO)A typical title for the highest ranking executive responsible for an organisation’s information systems.
Churn RateChurn rate refers to the percentage of customers who end their relationship with a business within a given period.
Cloud ComputingA remote means of offering a system, service or solution utilising a Wide Area Network (WAN) or, more locally, across a Local Area Network (LAN).
CoachThe person who provides additional support and technical knowledge to agents (in addition to the Team Leader). Also known as a buddy.
Computer SimulationA computer technique to predict the outcome of various events in the future, given many variables. When there are many variables, simulation is often the only way to reasonably predict the outcome.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)This term is widespread in business and means “the ethics of a company” e.g. do they pollute the environment etc. It is also confused with CSR describing an agent in the call centre.
Cost Per CallTotal costs (fixed and variable) divided by total calls for a given period of time.
Critical Work DayA Critical Work Day or CWD, is a day when you need maximum staffing. Often vacation or holiday is restricted during a CWD.
Cross TalkCrosstalk refers to periods on a call recording when both the Customer and The Advisor are speaking at the same time. Useful for spotting when the Agent is talking over the Customer.
- A lasting customer relationship
- Knowing what drives your customers
- Knowing what your customers are like
Customer TouchpointsCustomer touchpoints are the services and resources that bring the public into contact with a brand.
Day of Week RoutingA network service that routes calls to alternative locations based on the day of the week. There are also options for day of year and time of day routing.
Deferred Hours (DH)Deferred Hours or DH is a form of flexible overtime that allows you to work extra hours during a busy period (DH+) and then spend them during a quiet period (DH-). This can often be used instead of overtime. Sometimes called Banked Hours.
Delay AnnouncementsRecorded announcements that encourage callers to wait for an agent to become available, remind them to have their account number ready, and provide information on access alternatives. In some systems, delay announcements are provided through recorded announcement routes (RANs).
DelayAlso called Queue Time, delay is the time a caller spends in queue waiting for an agent to become available. The average time that a customer has to queue is also known as Average Delay of Delayed Calls. Average Delay is the same thing as Average Speed of Answer.
Delayed CallA call which cannot be answered immediately and is placed in queue.
Dialled Number (DN)The number that the caller dialled to initiate the call.
DigitalThe use of a binary code (1s and 0s) to represent information.
Digital Access Signalling System (DASS 2)This is a type of digital telephone line that connects between the call centre and the telephone exchange in the UK. It is sometimes called ISDN 30 and it allows 30 telephone calls to be carried on one set of lines.
Dip CheckWhen a quality analyst or contact centre leader quickly analyses customer contacts to find one specific type of problem or failure, that process is often known as a “dip check”.
Direct Dial Inward (DDI)A direct inbound number to the switch.
Direct Message (DM)A DM is direct message to one single person. It is therefore a private form of messaging.
DMC RateDMC stands for Decision Maker Contact (DMC). It is a term used in sales to or outbound calling to show the correct level of decision makers that you reach in a day or an hour.
Document Management System (DMS)Many call centres handle large amounts of incoming mail, which is opened and scanned by a DMS for electronic distribution as part of a workflow process for managing correspondence.
Dual-Tone Multifrequency (DTMF)A signalling system that sends pairs of audio frequencies to represent digits on a telephone keypad. It is often used interchangeably with the term Touchtone (an AT&T trademark).
Digital Transformation (DX)Stands for digital transformation.
Dynamic AnswerAn ACD feature that automatically reconfigures the number of rings before the system answers calls based on real-time queue information. Since costs don’t begin until the ACD answers calls, this feature can save callers or the call centre money when long-distance charges apply.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)The means of determining staffing and occupancy levels for front- and back-office staff.
Erlang BDeveloped by A K Erlang. Used to determine the number of trunks required to handle a known calling load during a one-hour period. The Erlang Calculator is a tool that allows you to work out how many agents you will need. You just need to enter your call volume and the service level that you would like to achieve. The calculator then looks at the agent capacity you would need to achieve the service level.
Escalation PlanA plan that specifies actions to be taken when the queue begins to build beyond acceptable levels.
Early Warning System (EWS)An EWS or Early Warning System is a process that alerts the company to new product issues that may arise. For example if there is a bug in a new product release then this will typically be picked up first in the contact centre.
Family Matters Leave of Absence (FMLA)FMLA or Family Matters Leave of Absence refers to time off work due to unscheduled events such as a partner or a child being ill and having to rush off from work to look after them.
Fast Clear DownA caller who hangs up immediately when they hear a delay announcement.
- Consumers should receive products and services that meet their needs and are marketed in a way that is clear, fair, and not misleading.
- Consumers should not face unreasonable barriers when they try to access financial products and services or exercise their rights.
- Consumers should receive products and services that are designed to meet their needs throughout their lifetime and are delivered fairly, taking account of their changing circumstances.
Fixed Telecommunications NetworkFTM stands for Fixed Telecommunications Network (i.e. a landline phone network that does not include mobile phones). Can also refer to Flight Tracking Number.
Flushing Out the QueueChanging system thresholds so that calls waiting for an agent group are redirected to another group with a shorter queue or available agents.
Fundamental Skills TrainingFundamental Skills Training, or FST, is typically week one of an induction class when starting in a BPO or call centre. e.g. There was never a dull moment during our FST week.
Grade of ServiceThe probability that a call will not be connected to a system because all trunks are busy. Grade of service is often expressed as “p.01” meaning 1% of calls will be “blocked”. Sometimes, grade of service is used interchangeably with service level, but the two terms have different meanings.
Grave Yard (GY)In a call centre GY stands for grave yard, and typically refers to a shift from midnight to 8am or 10pm – 6am. e.g. Tomorrow I will be working the GY shift.
Handled CallsThe number of calls received and handled by agents or peripheral equipment. Handled calls does not include calls that abandon or receive busy signals.
Handling TimeThe time an agent spends in Talk Time and After-Call Work handling a transaction. Handling Time can also refer to the time it takes for a machine to process a transaction.
Help DeskA term that generally refers to a call centre set up to handle queries about product installation, usage or problems. The term is most often used in the context of computer software and hardware support centres.
Historical ReportsReports that track call centre and agent performance over a period of time. Historical reports are generated by ACDs, third-party ACD software packages, and peripherals such as VRUs and Call Detail Recording Systems. The amount of history that a system can store varies by system.
Holding TimeSee Average Holding Time on Trunks.
Hybrid WorkingHybrid working means that employees work both in the office and remotely (usually at home). As this type of working becomes more commonplace acronyms for these types of workers are being created, and employees are being named after the days they spend in the office for example:
- MTFers (who go to the office on Monday, Tuesday, and Friday)
- WTFers (who go to the office on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday
- MTWers (who go to the office on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday).
Intelligent Call Router (ICR)The brand name for a specific intelligent telecommunications network service that takes real-time information from the ACD in the call centre to provide details on queuing and agent availability across a virtual call centre network.
Immutable LawA law of nature that is fundamental and not changeable (e.g. the law of gravity). In an inbound call centre, the fact that occupancy goes up when service level goes down is an immutable law.
Incoming Call Centre ManagementThe art of having the right number of skilled people and supporting resources in place at the right times to handle an accurately forecast workload, at service level and with quality.
Incremental Revenue (Value) AnalysisA methodology that estimates the value (cost and revenue) of adding or subtracting an agent.
Index FactorIn forecasting, a proportion used as a multiplier to adjust another number.
Intelligent Network Service (INS)Facilitates the distribution of calls to multiple destinations across a virtual call centre network.
Internal Help DeskA group that supports other internal agent groups, e.g. for complex or escalated calls.
Internal Response TimeThe time it takes an agent group that supports other internal groups (e.g. for complex or escalated tasks) to respond to transactions that do not have to be handled when they arrive (e.g. correspondence or email). See Response Time and Service Level.
Internet “Call Me” TransactionA transaction that allows a user to request a callback from the call centre when exploring a web page. Requires interconnection of the ACD system and the internet by means of an Internet Gateway.
Internet “Call Through” TransactionThe ability for callers to click a button on a website and be directly connected to an agent while viewing the site. Standards and technologies that provide this capability are in development.
Internet PhoneTechnology that enables users of the internet to place voice telephone calls through the internet, thus by-passing the long-distance network.
Intra Day StatisticsReports that provide details of what is happening in the call centre at particular times of the day – often broken down into thirty-minute periods. Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface.
Judgemental ForecastingGoes beyond purely statistical techniques and encompasses what people believe is going to happen. It is in the realm of intuition, interdepartmental committees, market research and executive opinion.
Key Performance Area (KPA)KPAs is that they are the areas for development which our KPIs have alerted us to.
Key Performance Objective (KPO)Your KPOs are your most important contact centre objectives. These are your targets, while your KPIs are your indicators. As a note of caution, KPO can also stand for Knowledge Process Outsourcing – with the acronym changing from one organization to another.
Key Result Objective (KRO)In BPO Agents are often set Job Objectives that have to be completed by the end of quarter. These objectives are known as KROs or Key Result Objectives and are linked to a Performance Review and possibly a bonus structure.
Knowledge Management System (KMS)A desktop application that agents use as source of information to provide the answers to customer enquiries. As the range of enquiries that an agent may have to handle is large, or the responses may change regularly, then the Knowledge Management System acts as a single source of content for the centre to use.
LAN (Local Area Network)A network located in one building that links terminals, PCs and common equipment, e.g. printers, so that computers can share information and applications.
Law of Diminishing ReturnsThe declining marginal improvements in service level that can be attributed to each additional agent, as successive agents are added.
Learning Management SystemA learning management system, also known as an LMS, is a system that contains training material and records training activity in a company
Legacy systemsIn order for the agent to transact business with the customer they may have to use ‘old’ computer systems that the company has had for many years. Typically these systems are not as user friendly as more modern ones as they may require the agent to remember codes, use lots of screens and do not have a logical flow.
Link Line (UK)Non-geographic 0800, 0345, 0370 number charged at various rates, normally directed to a DDI number.
Load BalancingBalancing traffic between two or more destinations.
Local Area Network (LAN)The connection of multiple computers within a building, so that they can share information, applications and peripherals. See Wide Area Network.
Local Exchange Carrier (LEC)Telephone companies responsible for providing local connections and services.
Logged OnA state in which agents have signed on to a system (made their presence known), but may or may not be ready to receive calls.
Long CallFor staffing calculations and traffic engineering purposes, calls that approach or exceed thirty minutes.
Longest Waiting AgentA method of distributing calls to the agent who has been sitting idle the longest. With a queue, Longest Available Agent becomes next Available Agent.
Longest Delay (Oldest Call)The longest time a caller has waited in queue before abandoning or reaching an agent.
Look Ahead QueuingThe ability for a system or network to examine a secondary queue and evaluate the conditions, before overflowing calls from the primary queue.
Look Back QueuingThe ability for a system or network to look back to the primary queue after the call has been overflowed to a secondary queue, and evaluate the conditions. If the congestion clears, the call can be sent back to the initial queue.
MailsortUK-specific discount bulk mail service provided by the Royal Mail. Mailsort3 guarantees delivery within 10 working days, Mailsort2 within 3 working days and Mailsort1 on a given day.
Management Information System (MIS)Reports that enable the Call Centre Manager to monitor the call centre’s performance through wallboards, real-time displays, reporting, forecasting and staff allocation.
MiddlewareSoftware that mediates between different types of hardware and software on a network, so that they can function together
MonitoringAlso called Position Monitoring or Service Observing. The process of listening to agents’ telephone calls for the purpose of maintaining quality. Monitoring can be:
- Silent, where agents don’t know when they are being monitored
- Side by side, where the person monitoring sits next to the agent and observes calls
- Record and review, where calls are recorded and then later played back and assessed.
Multilingual AgentsAgents that are skilled in handling calls in more than one language.
Multi-SkillingAn agent who can handle several different types of call, e.g. sales and service.
Murphy’s LawIf anything can go wrong, it will. Not a good perspective to live by, but worth considering when designing agent groups, routing configurations and disaster-recovery plans.
Network Control CentreAlso called Traffic Control Centre. In a networked call centre environment, where people and equipment monitor real-time conditions across sites, change routing thresholds as necessary, and coordinate events that will impact base staffing levels.
Network Inter-flowA technology used in multi-site call centre environments to create a more efficient distribution of calls between sites. Through integration of sites using network circuits (such as T1 circuits) and ACD software, calls routed to one site may be queued simultaneously for agent groups in remote sites. See Call Routing and Percent Allocation.
Next Available AgentA call distribution method that sends calls to the next agent who becomes available. The method seeks to maintain an equal load across skill groups or services. When there is no queue, Next Available Agent reverts to Longest Waiting Agent.
Noise-Cancelling HeadsetHeadsets equipped with technology that reduces background noise
Non ACD In CallsInbound calls which are directed to an agent’s extension rather than to a general group. These may be personal calls or calls from customers who dial the agent’s extension number.
Off The ShelfHardware or software programs that are commercially available and ready for use “as is”.
Offered CallsAll of the attempts callers make to reach the call centre. There are three possibilities for offered calls:
- They can get busy signals
- They can be answered by the system, but hang up before reaching a rep
- They can be answered by a rep
Off-PeakPeriods of time other than the call centre’s busiest periods. Also a term to describe periods of time when long-distance carriers provide lower rates.
One and DoneThe ability for the customer transaction to be completed by the agent in a single call. This approach helps to improve First Contact Resolution (FCR) rates in contact centres.
Open TicketA customer contact (transaction) that has not yet been completed or resolved (closed).
OutboundOutbound calls are those made by a contact centre to a third party, usually a customer or partner organisation. outbound dialling campaign involves tasking agents to place calls with the intention of making sales, generating leads, marketing a brand, or performing research.
OutsourcingThe sharing of call centre activities, e.g. peak call loads or certain call types, with a third-party specialist company who can manage the calls on your behalf. Outsourcers can provide both inbound response and outbound campaign services across a range of call types – telemarketing, customer service, technical helpdesk, debt management and many more. This is also known as BPO – Business Process Outsourcing.
Pareto ChartA bar chart that arranges events in order of frequency. Named after 19th-century economist Vilfredo Pareto.
Peaked Call ArrivalA surge of traffic beyond random variation. It is a spike within a short period of time.
Percent AllocationA call routing strategy sometimes used in multi-site call centre environments. Calls received in the network are allocated across sites based on user-defined percentages. See Call Routing.
PoissonPoisson is a formula sometimes used for calculating trunks – A variant of Poisson is used in the Erlang Formula. Assumes that if callers get busy signals, they keep trying until they successfully get through. Since some callers won’t keep retrying. Poisson can overestimate trunks required. See Erlang B and Retrial Tables.
Pooling PrincipleThe Pooling Principle states: Any movement in the direction of consolidation of resources will result in improved traffic-carrying efficiency. Conversely, any movement away from consolidation of resources will result in reduced traffic-carrying efficiency.
Post-Call ProcessingSee After-Call Work. predictive dialler can also be used in preview mode, where the systems allocates the contact to an agent for them to preview prior to physically dialling the number.
Product Specific TrainingProduct specific training or PST refers to the training given to agents on individual products.
Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair (PEBKAC)PEBKAC stands for Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair and is a humourous call reason code that defines a problem (often trivial) due to human error. E.g. a person disconnects a power cord and then phones technical support complaining that the system does not work. Also known as a PEBKAC Error.
Primary Rate Interface (PRI)One of two levels of ISDN service. In North America, PRI typically provides 23 bearer channels for voice and data and one channel for signalling information (commonly expressed as 23B+D). In Europe, PRI typically provides 30 bearer lines (30B+D). See Basic Rate Interface and Integrated Services Digital Network.
Private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX)See Private Branch Exchange (below).
Private Branch Exchange (PBX)A telephone system located at a customer’s site that handles incoming and outgoing calls. ACD software can provide PBXs with ACD functionality. Also called private automatic branch exchange (PABX).
Private NetworkA network made up of circuits for the exclusive use of an organisation or group of affiliated organisations. Can be regional, national or international in scope and are common in large organisations.
ProcessA system of causes.
Profit CentreAn accounting term that refers to a department or function in the organisation that does not generate profit.
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)The public telephone network which provides the capability of interconnecting any home or office with any other.
Quantitative ForecastingUsing statistical techniques to forecast future events. The major categories of quantitative forecasting include Time Series and Explanatory approaches. Time Series techniques use past trends to forecast future events. Explanatory techniques attempt to reveal linkages between two or more variables. See Judgemental Forecasting.
QueueThe ability to prioritise and handle callers when there is no agent available.
Queue TimeSee Delay.
RAG – Red, Amber, GreenThis is typically used for quality scoring of phone calls. If a quality review (typically done by listening to calls) goes well then the call is scored as Green. If there are a few areas to improve on it will be Amber. If there are a number of more major problems it will be scored as Red. A RAG system can also be used to flag if the customer was happy.
Random Call ArrivalThe normal, random variation in how incoming calls arrive. See Peaked Call Arrival.
ReaderboardsAlso called display boards or wall displays. A visual display, usually mounted on the wall or ceiling, that provides real-time and historical information on queue conditions, agent status and call centre performance.
Real-Time Adherence SoftwareSoftware that tracks how closely agents conform to their schedules. See Adherence to Schedule.
Real-Time DataInformation on current conditions. Some “real-time” information is real time in the strictest sense (e.g. calls in queue and current longest wait). Some real-time reports require some history (e.g. the last x calls or x minutes) in order to make a calculation (e.g. service level and average speed of answer).
Real-Time ManagementMaking adjustments to staffing and thresholds in the systems and network in response to current queue conditions.
Received CallsA call detected and seized by a trunk. Received calls will either abandon or be answered by an agent.
Record and Review MonitoringSee Monitoring.
Recorded Announcement Route (RAN)See Delay Announcement.
Re-engineeringA term popularised by management consultant Michael Hammer, which refers to radically redesigning processes to improve efficiency and service.
Response TimeThe time it takes the call centre to respond to transactions that do not have to be handled when they arrive (e.g. correspondence or email). See Service Level.
Rest DayIn a call centre a rest day, also known as an RD, is a day off work.
Retrial TablesSometimes used to calculate trunks and other system resources required. They assume that some callers will make additional attempts to reach the call centre if they get a busy signal. See Erlang B and Poisson.
RetrialA caller who “retries” when they get a busy signal.
Rostered Staff Factor (RSF)Alternatively called an Overlay, Shrink Factor or Shrinkage. RSF is a numerical factor that leads to the minimum staff needed on schedule over and above base staff required to achieve your service level and response time objectives. RSF is calculated after base staffing is determined and before schedules are organised, and accounts for things like breaks, absenteeism and ongoing training.
Round Robin DistributionA method of distributing calls to agents according to a predetermined list. See Next Available Agent and Longest Waiting Agent.
Real-Time Adherence (RTA)In contact centres, adherence can be measured in both real time and historically. RTA is the acronym used to signal when adherence is being measured in real time. By measuring RTA, contact centres can address the issue immediately, in order to have the optimal number of advisors, at any given time.
Software as a Service (SaaS)The (remote) delivery of an item of software or a system by a provider to a subscriber or user base.
Satellite Call CentreA satellite call centre is not up in space. It is a smaller contact centre at another location – perhaps across the other side of town. It typically comes about when a company outgrows its main building in the town centre and needs to expand. Instead of moving everyone out of the old building, it acquires a new building out of town. The two call centres are joined together, so they typically take the same calls, but are physically in tow different locations.
Scatter DiagramA chart that graphically depicts the relationship between two variables.
Schedule ComplianceSee Adherence to Schedule.
Scheduling ExceptionWhen an agent is involved in an activity outside of the normal, planned schedule.
Screen MonitoringA system capability that enables a supervisor or manager to remotely monitor the activity on agents’ computer terminals.
Screen PopScreen pop describes the ability for a screen to arrive on an agent desktop at the same time as a call. A CTI capability. Callers’ records are automatically retrieved (based on ANI or digits entered into the VRU) and delivered to agents, along with the calls.
Self-ServiceIf you can provide self-service, you are providing customers with a way of completing a transaction/having their query answered without having to involve a member of the customer service team.
Shift Inflex (or Schedule Inflex)Shift inflex (or schedule inflex) is a fudge factor to cover for things like adherence and shrinkage. The word Inflex is a shortening of Inflexibility. It is a factor (typically 5% – 10%) that is added to the FTE number to allow staffing to meet service levels.
Skills-Based RoutingSkill Based Routing ensures that calls are directed to those agents that have the specific skills to answer that call type most effectively.
Skip Level MeetingsA skip level meeting is a meeting between agents and managers, where the team leader is not present – allowing managers to have a transparent view of what is going-on on the contact centre floor.
Small Medium Enterprise (SME)An SME is an enterprise or business with fewer than 250 employees. While this is how it is defined in the UK, in the EU, a business can also be an SME if it has an annual turnover of less than €50 million, or a balance sheet total of less than €43 million.
Smooth Call ArrivalCalls that arrive evenly across a period of time. Virtually non-existent in incoming environments.
Special Response Team (SRT)A SRT is a group of engineers that can be called out for an emergency. However, SRT can also be used as a short-term for a econd line group in a contact centre that deal with special situations (e.g. VIP Escalations, Premium Customers etc.).
Speech RecognitionThe capability of a voice processing system to decipher spoken words and phrases.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)SOPs are a set of guidelines that contact centres create to deal with common processes and procedures, such as:
- How calls are scored for quality
- How to deal with complaints
- How to schedule staff
Stuck CallA stuck call is technical problem where a call appears to be stuck in the telephone system. Typically the caller has ended the call but for some reason the disconnect message has not reached the system and ended the call. It looks as though the call is still in progress. This could either show up as a call that has been queueing for a long period of time or an ongoing call that has been in progress for a long time. Stuck calls usually need to be cleared manually.
SupervisorThe person who has front-line responsibility for a group of agents. Typical ratios are one supervisor to every 10-15 agents. However, help desks can have one supervisor for every five people, and some reservations centres have one supervisor for every 30 or 40 agents. Generally, supervisors are equipped with special telephones and computer terminals that enable them to monitor agent activities. Also known as Team Leader or Team Manager.
Supervisor CallSUP Call stands for Supervisor Call, and happens when a customer is not happy and asks to be put through to a supervisor. Also known as an Escalation Call.
Supply Chain ManagementIn a BPO SCM stands for Supply Chain Management and it typically means moving manufacturing or other activities to an external company or other activities as well as Customer Service, such as Manufacturing, Billing and Logistics.
T1 CircuitA high-speed digital circuit used for voice, data or video, with a bandwidth of 1.544 megabits per second. T1 circuits offer the equivalent of twenty-four (24) analogue voice trunks.
Talk TimeThe amount of time an agent spends handling a customer call – from start to finish.
TardyTardy or Tardiness is someone arriving late for work or coming back late from their break. This will be included in the agent schedule adherence.
TelecommutingUsing telecommunications to work form home or other locations instead of at the organisation’s premises.
Telephone Service FactorSee Service Level.
Telephone Service Representative (TSR)A TSR is another name for a Customer Service Rep (CSR), with one slight difference. A TSR will only handle telephone calls, while a CSR may also handle emails, chats, letters etc.
Telephony Applications Programming Interface (TAPI)CTI protocol developed by Microsoft and Intel.
Telephony Services Application Programming Interface (TSAPI)CTI protocol developed by Novell and AT&T.
TeleSetThe telephone set used by an agent in a call centre. It often has other functions (the ability to log on etc.) to a normal telephone set. The term TeleSet was first termed by Aspect but has more recently come to be used as any agent telephone set.
Temporary Lay OffA Temporary Lay Off, or TLO, occurs when a company may not need so many workers during a quite phase so may lay off the employees on a temporary basis.
Top Level Organisation (TLO)When a company buys another company, but don’t merge, the buying company is known as the TLO. A TLO is more commonly known as a “Parent Company”.
Toll-Free ServiceEnables callers to reach a call centre out of the local calling area without incurring charges. 0800 and 800 service is toll-free. In some countries, there are also other variations of toll-free service. For example, with 0345 services in the United Kingdom, callers are charged local rates and the call centre pays for the long-distance charges. See also Link Line.
TX stands for Total Experience, and is a holistic approach to delivering exceptional experiences that encompasses all aspects of the customer journey.
It includes customer experience (CX), employee experience (EX), user experience (UX), and multi-experience (MX).
Traffic Control CentreSee Network Control Centre
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)The protocols that govern the exchange of sequential data. TCP/IP was designed by the US Department of Defense to link dissimilar computers across many kinds of networks. It has since become a common standard for commercial equipment and applications.
True Calls Per HourActual calls an individual or group handled divided by occupancy for that period of time.
Trunk, TrunksNot the storage area of a car, but a word to describe the telephone lines coming into a call centre. The word “trunk” could easily and less confusingly be replaced by the word “telephone line”.
TurretThis is one of the most baffling uses of jargon in a call centre, but effectively means an agent telephone set. This term was commonly used in the 1980s and 1990s but is not so widespread today. Usually the term TeleSet is used these days.
(The) UK Do Not Call ListIn the UK, the definition of a “Do Not Call” list comprises 2 key categories:
- Individuals registered with the Telephone Preference Service (TPS)
- Individuals who ask to be removed from your data list after the first point of contact
Unavailable Work StateAn agent work state used to identify a mode not associated with handling telephone calls.
Unified Communications (UC)Unified Communications (UC) refers to the blending of interaction types. For example, where initial contact was made by voice, the response may be via email, etc.
Unified DesktopA desktop application which amalgamates other systems or interfaces and accepts both voice and electronic interactions. A Unified Desktop may also populate an underlying (CRM) system with interaction or customer data, in real time.
Uniform Call Distributor (UCD)A simple system that distributes calls to a group of agents and provides some reports. A UCD is not as sophisticated as an ACD.
Universal AgentRefers to either:
- An agent who can handle all types of incoming calls
- An agent who can handle both inbound and outbound calls.
UtteranceIn a contact centre UTT refers to utterance which can be a question, statement, greeting, or closing phrase that is used to communicate with customers. Utterances are typically bounded by silence and often used in Speech analytics.
Verbatim FeedbackVerbatim feedback is also known as open feedback and involves capturing customer comments, not scores.
Virtual Call CentreA group of call centres that acts as a single point for call handling and reporting processes.
VirtualisationThe means by which a series of disparate processes or systems is combined to provide a single service offering.
Virtual Recruitment HubVRH stands for Virtual Recruitment Hub which typically refers to a software platform that allows you to share CVs within an organisation and manage candidates.
Visible QueueWhen callers know how long the queue that they just entered is, and how fast it is moving (e.g. they hear a system announcement that relays the expected wait time). See Invisible Queue. VoIP is the means by which a voice channel is delivered as packets through internet protocols, using a pre-existing streaming (CODEC) format, such as H.225, H.323 (see also SIP).
Voice over IP (VoIP)Refers to a host of methods used to encode voice and transmit it over an IP network, such as an internal ethernet or over the internet.
Voice ProcessingA blanket term that refers to any combination of voice-processing technologies, including Voice Mail, Automated Attendant, Audiotex, Voice Response Unit (VRU) and Faxback.
Voice Response Unit (VRU)Also called Interactive Voice Response Unit (IVR) or Audio Response Unit (ARU). A VRU responds to caller-entered digits or speech recognition in much the same way that a conventional computer responds to keystrokes or clicks of a mouse. When the VRU is integrated with database computers, callers can interact with databases to check current information (e.g. account balances) and complete transactions (e.g. make transfers between accounts). See Voice Processing (above).
VoicebotA voicebot is the same as a chatbot, but it is instead voice-activated.
WallboardsElectronic displays within the physical location of a call centre, used to give the management and agents a view of their own team’s performance. Wallboards can be used to display key performance criteria such as service level or calls queuing, again in real time. There is a lot of debate in the industry about whether wallboards are good or bad for agent morale.
Waterfall ScheduleA Waterfall Schedule is a type of schedule where the number of hours per day reduces as the contact volume reduces across the week. For example Monday 10 hours. Tuesday 9 hours. Wednesday 8 hours. Thursday 7 hours. Friday 6 hours.
Wide Area Network (WAN)An intra-office data network used to connect terminals, computers and equipment across multiple sites. WFM or workforce management is the means of determining and providing schedules, forecasting and adherence for a workforce against historical interaction volumes and known future events.
Workforce Management (WFM) SoftwareSoftware systems that, depending on available modules, forecast call load, calculate staff requirements, organise schedules and track real-time performance of individuals and groups. disposition codes’ or ‘call codes’, wrap-up codes are a quick way to summarise important information about an interaction.
Wrap-Up Time (or Wrap Time)Wrap-Up Time, or Wrap Time, is the time spent by an agent doing After-Call Work (ACW) once they have concluded an interaction.
We currently have no definitions beginning with the letter “X”.
We currently have no definitions beginning with the letter “Y”.
Zero Tolerance Policy (ZTP)ZTP is a ban of a certain behaviour or possession that an organization deems to be unacceptable. It can also be thought of as a code of conduct – which, if an employee doesn’t follow, will lead to some some sort of repercussion.
Zip ToneSee Beep Tone.
3-2-1 (Idea Generation Technique)Used to gather information from several people in a short space of time. Focused on identifying immediate solutions to a specific issue.
- Introduction to call centres
- Outbound Dialling Reference Guide
- An A-Z of Speech Analytics Features
- A-Z of call recording features
- Call Recording and Speech Analytics Reference Guide